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Alaska Cruises Juneau, Alaska (JEW-noh)
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Current Population: 31,275 (2010)
Borough Located In: City and Borough of Juneau
Taxes: 5% Sales, 7% Bed, $5 Per Person Marine Passenger Fee

Location and Climate
Located on the mainland of Southeast Alaska, opposite Douglas Island, Juneau was built at the heart of the Inside Passage along the Gastineau Channel. It lies 900 air miles northwest of Seattle and 577 air miles southeast of Anchorage. The community lies at approximately 58.301940° North Latitude and 134.419720° West Longitude (Sec. 23, T041S, R067E, Copper River Meridian).

Juneau is located in the Juneau Recording District. The area encompasses 2,716.7 sq. miles of land and 538.3 sq. miles of water. Juneau has a mild, maritime climate. Average summer temperatures range from 44 to 65; winter temperatures range from 25 to 35. It is in the mildest climate zone in Alaska. Annual precipitation is 92 inches in downtown Juneau, and 54 inches ten miles north at the airport. Snowfall averages 101 inches.

History, Culture and Demographics
The area was a fish camp for the indigenous Tlingit Indians. In 1880, nearly 20 years before the gold rushes to the Klondike and Nome, Joe Juneau and Richard Harris were lead to Gold Creek by Chief Kowee of the Auk Tribe. They found mother lode deposits upstream, staked their mining claims, and developed a 160 acre incorporated city they called Harrisburg, which brought many prospectors to the area. The City of Juneau was formed in 1900. The state capital was transferred from Sitka to Juneau in 1906 while Alaska was a U.S. Territory. The Treadwell and Ready Bullion mines across the channel on Douglas Island became world-scale mines, operating from 1882 to 1917. In 1916, the Alaska-Juneau gold mine was built on the mainland, and became the largest operation of its kind in the world. In 1917, a cave-in and flood closed the Treadwell mine on Douglas. It produced $66 million in gold in its 35 years of operation. Fishing, canneries, transportation and trading services, and a sawmill contributed to Juneau's growth through the early 1900s. The A-J Mine closed in 1944, after producing over $80 million in gold. In 1970, the City of Juneau and City of Douglas were unified into the City & Borough of Juneau.

A federally-recognized tribe is located in the community -- the Central Council Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska; Douglas Indian Association; Aukquan Traditional Council (not recognized). As the state capital, Juneau is supported largely by state and federal employment and by tourists cruising the Inside Passage. It is the third largest community in Alaska. About one-third of residents live downtown or on Douglas Island; the remaining two-thirds live elsewhere along the roaded area. Juneau has a Tlingit history with a strong historical influence from the early prospectors and boomtown that grew around full-scale gold mining operations.

According to Census 2010, there were 13,055 housing units in the community and 12,187 were occupied. Its population was 11.8 percent American Indian or Alaska Native; 69.8 percent white; 0.9 percent black; 6.1 percent Asian; 0.7 percent Pacific Islander; 9.5 percent of the local residents had multi-racial backgrounds. Additionally, 5.1 percent of the population was of Hispanic decent.

Economy and Transportation
The State, City & Borough of Juneau, and federal agencies provide nearly 45% of the employment in the community. Juneau is home to State Legislators and their staff during the legislative session between January and May. Tourism is a significant contributor to the private sector economy during the summer months, providing a $130 million income and nearly 2,000 jobs. Over 690,000 visitors arrive by cruise ship, and another 100,000 independent travelers visit Juneau each year. The Mendenhall Glacier, Juneau Icefield air tours, Tracy Arm Fjord Glacier, State Museum, and Mount Roberts Tramway are local attractions. Support services for logging and fish processing contribute to the Juneau economy, and 519 residents hold commercial fishing permits. DIPAC, a private non-profit organization, operates a fish hatchery which increases the local salmon population. The Kennecott Green's Creek Mine produces gold, silver, lead and zinc, and is the largest silver mine in North America.

Juneau is accessible only by air and sea. Scheduled jet flights and air taxis are available at the Municipally-owned Juneau International Airport. The airport includes a paved 8,457' long by 150' wide runway and a seaplane landing area. Marine facilities include a seaplane landing area at Juneau Harbor, two deep draft docks, five small boat harbors and a State ferry terminal. The Alaska Marine Highway System and cargo barges provide year-round services.

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Did You Know?
City Of Anchorage. In 1915 President Woodrow Wilson authorized funds for the construction of the Alaska Railroad. Ship Creek Landing was selected as the headquarters of this effort. A Tent City sprang up in the wilderness at the mouth of Ship Creek, and soon swelled to a population of over 2,000. On July 9, 1915, the Anchorage townsite auction was held, and over 600 lots were sold. Although the area had been known by various names, in this same year the U.S. Post Office Department formalized the use of the name Anchorage, and despite some protests the name stuck.
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